Medical Imaging

Delineation of the post-prostatectomy clinical target volume using deep learning for prostate cancer radiotherapy Delineation of the post-prostatectomy clinical target volume using deep learning for prostate cancer radiotherapy

Organ Segmentation and Treatment Target Delineation

Accurate delineation of tumors and sensitive structures is important for many medical applications. One example is treatment planning in cancer radiotherapy. Although many auto-segmentation algorithms have been developed and implemented in clinical practice, none of them are satisfactory and manual contouring is often required. Such failure is mainly because conventional segmentation methods are purely based on local information in the images. Especially for treatment target delineation we often rely on information beyond the images which is very challenging, if not impossible, for conventional methods. We have been investigating deep learning based strategies to solve this problem.

The figure below shows an example of delineating the post-prostatectomy clinical target volume using deep learning for prostate cancer radiotherapy, where in addition to CT images, we need to use information like surgery reports, surgical pathology, pre-operative MRI knowledge of tumor location and organ invasion, etc.


  1. Balagopal A, Morgan H, Dohopolski M, Timmerman R, Shan J, Heitjan D, Nguyen D, Hannan R, Garant A, Desai N, Jiang S. (2021) PSA-Net: Deep learning–based physician style–aware segmentation network for postoperative prostate cancer clinical target volumes. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 121, 102195. (journal)
  2. Yu S, Zhang E, Wu J, Yu H, Yang Z, Ma L, Chen M, Gu X, Lu W. (2020) Robustness study of noisy annotation in deep learning based medical image segmentation. (arXiv)
  3. Balagopal A, Nguyen D, Morgan H, Weng Y, Dohopolski M, Lin MH, Barkousaraie AS, Gonzalez Y, Garant A, Desai N, Hannan R, Jiang S. (2020) A deep learning-based framework for segmenting invisible clinical target volumes with estimated uncertainties for post-operative prostate cancer radiotherapy. (arXiv) (journal)
  4. Yang Q, Chao H, Nguyen D, Jiang S. (2019) A novel deep learning framework for standardizing the label of OARs in CT. In Workshop on Artificial Intelligence in Radiation Therapy. 52-60. Springer, Cham. (journal)
  5. Li S, Xu P, Li B, Chen L, Zhou Z, Hao H, ... Jiang S. (2019) Predicting lung nodule malignancies by combining deep convolutional neural network and handcrafted features. Phys Med Biol, 64(17), 175012. (journal) (arXiv)
  6. Zhou Z, Li S, Qin G, Folkert M, Jiang S, Wang J. (2019) Multi-objective based radiomic feature selection for lesion malignancy classification. IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics. (journal) (arXiv)
  7. Balagopal A, Kazemifar S, Nguyen D, Lin, MH, Hannan R, Owrangi A, Jiang S. (2018) Fully automated organ segmentation in male pelvic CT images. Phys Med Biol, 63(24), 245015. (journal) (arXiv)
  8. Kazemifar S, Balagopal A, Nguyen D, McGuire S, Hannan R, Jiang S, Owrangi A. (2018) Segmentation of the prostate and organs at risk in male pelvic CT images using deep learning. Biomedical Physics and Engineering Express. (journal) (arXiv)
  9. Liu Y, Stojadinovic S, Hrycushko B, Wardak Z, Lau S, Lu W, ... Nedzi L. (2017) A deep convolutional neural network-based automatic delineation strategy for multiple brain metastases stereotactic radiosurgery. PloS One, 12(10), e0185844. (journal)
  10. Rozario T, Long T, Chen M, Lu W, Jiang S. (2017) Towards automated patient data cleaning using deep learning: a feasibility study on the standardization of organ labeling. (arXiv)
  11. Liu Y, Stojadinovic S, Hrycushko B, Wardak Z, Lu W, Yan Y, ... Gu X. (2016) Automatic metastatic brain tumor segmentation for stereotactic radiosurgery applications. Phys Med Biol, 61(24), 8440. (journal)

Image Reconstruction and Restoration

By introduction of machine learning and data-driven methods, a paradigm shift has happened in the field of imaging in general and accordingly these new methods have a high translational impact in the area of medical imaging.

These impacts are not limited to only image analysis and pattern recognition techniques but also they are used widely in the field of image reconstruction. Recently, multiple groups worldwide, with encouraging results and increasing interest, are actively exploring deep learning techniques for image reconstruction and other inverse problems.

Currently, our team is working on developing new machine learning based methods for implementing MRI-only planning into the clinic. Challenges include producing robust MRI-only patient models and synthetic CT scans with accurate geometry and electron densities.

However, our novel machine learning based method allows us to simultaneously achieve electron density map for dose calculation and automatic segmentation of the target and OAR.

The successful completion of this research will provide essential tools to establish effective MRI-based RT planning in routine clinical practice, which will improve normal and target tissue delineation and localization for more accurate radiation delivery. 


  1. Zhang E, Yang Z, Seiler S, Chen M, Lu W, Gu X. (2020) Breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis using structure-aware triplet path networks. (arXiv)
  2. Bai T, Nguyen D, Wang B, Jiang S. (2020) Probabilistic self-learning framework for low-dose CT denoising. (arXiv)
  3. Kazemifar S, Montero AMB, Souris K, Rivas S, Timmerman R, Park Y, Jiang S, Geets X, Sterpin E, Owrangi A. (2020) Dosimetric evaluation of synthetic CT generated with GANs for MRI‐only proton therapy treatment planning of brain tumors. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 21:5:76–86. (journal)
  4. Liang X, Nguyen D, Jiang S. (2020) Generalizability issues with deep learning models in medicine and their potential solutions: illustrated with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to computed tomography (CT) image conversion. Mach Learn: Sci Technol, (2)1(arXiv) (journal)
  5. Chen L, Liang X, Shen C, Jiang S, Wang J. (2020) Synthetic CT generation from CBCT images via deep learning. Medical Physics. (journal)
  6. Jia X, Wang S, Liang X, Balagopal A, Nguyen D, Yang M, ... Jiang S. (2019) Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) segmentation by adversarial learning domain adaptation. In International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention. 567-575. Springer, Cham. (journal)
  7. Iqbal Z, Nguyen D, Jiang S. (2019) Super-resolution 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging utilizing deep learning. (journal) (arXiv)
  8. Kazemifar S, McGuire S, Timmerman R, Wardak Z, Nguyen D, Park Y, ... Owrangi A. (2019) MRI-only brain radiotherapy: assessing the dosimetric accuracy of synthetic CT images generated using a deep learning approach. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 136, 56-63. (journal) (arXiv)
  9. Liang X, Chen L, Nguyen D, Zhou Z, Gu X, Yang M, ... Jiang S. (2019) Generating synthesized computed tomography (CT) from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) using CycleGAN for adaptive radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol. (journal) (arXiv)
  10. Ma G, Shen C, Jia X. (May 2019) Low dose CT reconstruction assisted by an image manifold prior. SPIE. (journal) (arXiv)
  11. Zhong Y, Vinogradskiy Y, Chen L, Myziuk N, Castillo R, Castillo E, Wang J. (2019) Deriving ventilation imaging from 4 DCT by deep convolutional neural network. Medical Physics. (journal) (arXiv)
  12. Iqbal Z, Nguyen D, Thomas MA, Jiang S. (2018) Acceleration and quantitation of localized correlated spectroscopy using deep learning: A pilot simulation study. (arXiv)
  13. Shen C, Gonzalez Y, Chen L, Jiang SB, Jia X. (2018) Intelligent parameter tuning in optimization-based iterative CT reconstruction via deep reinforcement learning. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging37(6), 1430-1439. (journal)(arXiv)

Other Publications

  1. Ali SR, Nguyen D, Wang B, Jiang S, Sadek HA. Deep learning identifies cardiomyocyte nuclei with high precision. Circulation Research. 2020;127:696–698. (journal)